Kashmir Introduction
  Introduction :
  Kashmir Geography:

Kashmir History:

  Kashmir Conflict :
  UN Resolution:
  The Brink of War 2001:
  Kargil Conflict 1999:
  Kashmir Insurgency 1989:
  Kashmir War 1947-1948:
  Independent Kashmir:
  Kashmir Future?:
  A Smaller Indep. Kashmir:

UN Resolution

The resolution of the U.N Security Council of August 13, 1948 to which Pakistan was a party but observed it only in its breach reads.
The United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan. Having given careful consideration to the point of view expressed by the representatives of India and Pakistan regarding the situation in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
Being of the opinion that the prompt cessation of hostilities and the correction of conditions the continuance of which is likely to endanger international peace and security are essential to implementation of its endeavours to assist the government of India and Pakistan in effecting a final settlement of the situation. Resolves to submit simultaneously to the Government of India and Pakistan the following proposal: -


A -  The governments of India and Pakistan agree that their respective High Command will issue separately and simultaneously a cease fire order to apply to all forces under their control in the State of Jammu and Kashmir as of the earliest practicable date or dates to be mutually agrees upon within four days after these proposals have been accepted by the both Governments.

B - The High Commands of the India and Pakistan Forces agree to refrain from Taking any measures that might augment the military potential of the forces under their control in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
(For the purpose of these proposals forces under their control shall be considered to include all forces organised and unorganised, fighting or participating in hostilities on their respective sides.)

C - The Commanders-in-Chief of the forces of India and Pakistan shall promptly confer regarding any necessary local changes in present dispositions which may facilitate the cease-fire.

D - In its discretion and as the Commission may find practicable, the Commission will appoint military observers who, under the authority of the Commission and with the co-operation of the both Commands, will supervise the observance of the cease-fire order.

E - The Government of India and Government of Pakistan agree to appeal to their respective peoples to assist in creating and maintaining an atmosphere favourable to the promotion of further negotiations.


Simultaneously with the acceptance of the proposal for the immediate cessation of hostilities as outlined in section I, both Government accept the following principles as a basis for the formulation of a truce agreement, the details of which shall be worked out in discussion between their representatives and the Commission.

Section A
1 - As the presence of troops of Pakistan in the territory of State of Jammu and Kashmir constitutes a material change in the situation since it was represented by the Government of Pakistan before the Security Council, the Government of Pakistan agrees to withdraw its troops.
2 - The Government of Pakistan will use its best endeavour to secure the withdrawal from the State of Jammu and Kashmir of tribesmen and Pakistan nationals not normally resident therein who have entered the state for the purpose of fighting.
3 - Pending a final solution the territory evacuated by the Pakistan troops will be administered by the local authorities under the surveillance of the Commission.

Section B
1 - When the Commission shall have notified the Government of India that the tribesmen and Pakistan nationals referred to in Part II, have withdrawn, thereby terminating the situation which was represented by the Government of India to the Security Council as having occasioned the presence of India forces in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, and further, that the Pakistan forces are being withdrawn from the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the Government of India agrees to begin to withdraw the bulk of its forces from that State in stages to be agreed upon with the Commission.
2 - Pending the acceptance of the conditions for a final settlement of the situation in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the India Government will maintain within the lines existing at the moment of the cease-fire the minimum strength of its forces which in agreement with the Commission are considered necessary to assist local authorities in the observance of law and order T3 - The Government of India will undertake to ensure that the Government of the State of Jammu and Kashmir will take all measures within its power to make it publicly known that peace, law and order will be safeguarded and that all human and political right will be guaranteed.
4 - Upon signature, the full text of the truce agreement or a communiqué containing the principles thereof as agreed upon between the two Government and Commission will be made public.

Government of India and Government of Pakistan reaffirm their that the future status of the State of Jammu and Kashmir shall be determined in accordance with the will of the people and to that end, upon acceptance of the truce agreement, both Governments agree to enter into consultations with the Commission to determine fair and equitable conditions whereby such free expression will be assured.he Commission will have observers stationed where it deems necessar

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